Having a back pain is one of the most common condition where it acts as a reason to many major disabilities, world widely. It brings episode of pain that can be triggered by non-proper body mechanic. Not that alone, many causes may lead to back pain. The likelihood of having back pain is higher in adult compared to children and adolescent. Men and women at age of 35 to 55 is where the time this can occur at its peak. As people ages, the prevalence increased as the structure of spine deteriorates alongside. Back pain is the leading and commonest condition that gives out limitation of activity. Thus, prevention steps should be taken in protecting our body and maintain a healthy life.
80% of population will experience back pain non-significantly over time. Back pain involves pain, numbness, loss in sensation, muscle spasm, tingling at the buttock or lower legs. It constructs into two – acute and chronic back pain.
- Acute back pain is considered as a short term of pain that persist from days up to weeks. In this case, it may resolve by itself.
- Chronic back pain or a continuous pain up to 12 weeks or longer can be caused by acute back pain that later then developed into chronic type. It does not always indicate there is a serious underlying cause that unable to be treated. In some cases, treatment relieves chronic back pain but in other hand, it may not, despite undergoing surgical treatment.
Back pain delivers varies kind of symptoms depends on one’s activity.
- Dull aching pain and muscle spasm
Most people that endure feel dull aching pain at back especially in lower back. When an injury occurs, the muscle surrounding will become guarding and it hardens. This is what we called muscle spasm. The spasm here will trigger the aching pain when people do movement that involves the injury area. The spasm acts as a protector from working the pain site more, this is to allow the muscle to recover properly. But over time, it become a problem when the muscle itself become irritated by activities.
- Sharp shooting pain at the back.
It can radiate till the legs when the spine structure impinges or compress the nerve. Nerve at the spine failed to send proper signal for muscle to function.
Nerve impinge at back is causing weakness and loss of sensation/ numbness until lower legs. Once sensation function is off, people will face difficulty or disability to stand straight.
- Limited range or motion.
Decreased in muscle flexibility especially when bending the trunk is one of the symptoms there is something is going on with your spine. Ability to fully achieve trunk’s range of motion becomes less. This occurs when the spine is in pain, our body automatically will react alongside to avoid further injuring the condition
- Muscle strain
Overstretched or tear can create back pain due to overwork or weakness of muscles that function as mobilizer, balance, and strength.
- Ligament sprain
Ligament (a connector between each spine bones) can injured by sudden and forceful movement at joints or impact from prolonged stress. When this occur, back spine will lose its stability. These two mainly in people who have traumatic injuries, resulting from sport plays, vehicle accidents or fall.
- Incorrect posture.
Poor posture or bad habit by sitting with slouched posture or maintaining a hunched back leads to extra pressure on discs, compression at joints and muscle becomes fatigue. Prolonged usage of compensated muscles trigger pain, muscle weakness, muscle tightness and imbalance use of muscles.
Ageing process turns the disc into wear and tear state where it is causing decreased in bone density, less elasticity and strength to the muscle and ligament. Older population is at risk developing a degeneration disc or spine joint diseases.
- Disc bulging
Bulged disc may pressure the nerve which creates radiating pain down the legs. This responds well towards strengthening and stretching program plan.
People At Risk
With non-ergonomic or improper body mechanic, it puts extra pressure by using more of back muscles rather than make use of lower limbs while lifting objects from floor or any low-level surface.
Having weak abdominal and paraspinal muscles make it is difficult to maintain the spine in its position. Therefore, people that do not practice exercise and active lifestyle are at risk of encountering back pain.
Weight gives impact on our body as the body absorbs all the load given onto it. Therefore, excess weight or overweight person has the tendency of gaining problem on the back. The exceeding weight put more stress to the back. If a body unable to support fully the weight gained, the body will change its centre of gravity. When this happens, body becomes imbalance that this forced the muscles to work harder than normal.
Age plays an important role in many cases. Older citizen is very risky of encountering back pain. As we grow old, the muscle weakens, and degeneration takes place.
Chronic diseases, for example cancer, arthritis, spine infection and kidney problem can increase risk of developing backpain. Arthritis leads to deteriorate in elasticity of joint cartilage, making it prone to injury. Smoking contributes to backpain due to coughing frequently. Apart from that, smoke makes bone become brittle and porous, and blood flow become decline as well.
Back pain is a complex condition that it differs between individuals. For many, it lasts for month and start to resolve by itself and very few that have persistent pain. An on-off pain at back may help if you practice this below.
- Stretching exercise
Stretching helps to increase muscle flexibility and elasticity that its lower down risk of injury from overstretched muscle. It reduces the feeling of tension at the trunk’s muscles as well as releasing spasm.
- Strengthening exercise
Strong back and abdominal muscles build up a good posture. With correct position of body, people can conduct activity according to the proper movement of muscle. Each muscle will work simultaneously without overpowering or lacking in use.
- Postural correction
Having balance working muscles in enabling body to be in upright position is important to avoid any misuse of muscles. This leads each muscle to be in its position to work normally and do not compensate itself to allow activity and motion of body.